An Integral Structure
A fractal cosmos is an integral structure of universes-within-universes and particles-upon- particles.
The interrelationships between universes and particles can be understood in terms of these following definitions. (See Figure 1.)
A fractal particle (or a particle) is a standing wave pattern superimposed on a substrate of smaller particles.
A substrate is a super-dense solid sphere made of particles.
A stratum is all of the particles and wave patterns as well as all of the empty space or vacuum superimposed on a single substrate.
A fractal universe (or a universe) is either a substrate or a stratum, depending on whether it is viewed from the outside or inside, respectively.